In this article we will talk about travel to distant stars, beyond the boundaries of our solar system.But Before we talk about the challenges facing humanity in transforming the reality of these trips
, you should take on an important question
: Why make this trip at all? What’s the point
? What do we have to look for those little points of light that we see in the sky every night?
The first is the backup. Our planet is a pleasant environment for humans: Htfrtorot generally comfortable, suitable breathed in air pressure, gravity reasonable. But sometimes there are times when the earth stops being so nice, then … no place to escape. Earth stopped being nice dinosaurs sixty-five million years ago, and dinosaurs had nowhere to escape. They became extinct.
If you think so catastrophic that an incident is rare, perhaps even one Fami- think again. Five hundred and fifty million years there were at least five mass extinctions on Earth.
In our solar system there is not a planet or moon suits humans, and will require enormous efforts and unimaginable to make one place that humans can coexist on the same level of comfort as we are used to it our parent star.
The journey to another planet-scale challenge humanity has faced not like him before. Long journeys were quite common during periods Mokdmot- especially in the heyday of the Spanish Empire and Empire Hfortogalit- but also long odyssey and most daring explorers are like a trip to the grocery store compared to flying spacecraft beyond the boundaries of the solar system. Ferdinand Magellan took with him two hundred and forty sailors on three ships journey around the world in the 16th century, and only fifty of them survived the difficulties on the way. Hunger, terrible diseases, Mutiny on the ship, storms and storms destroyed the Portuguese succession. Magellan himself was killed during the journey in the Philippines, along with several dozen of his men. And yet, despite the terrible difficulties of such a journey, Maglan were privileged Slastronaotim future will not be: no islands on the way to the stars where you can stop and stock up on supplies, and who came to the journey will not be able to return to the world, but never, to earth.
What difficulties, therefore, expect for those planning to take on the long journey?
The first problem is funding. A project of this size can cost hundreds of billions of dollars. Even the current dollar exchange rate, this is a huge expense, almost like the price of a half room apartment in Tel Aviv. To date, no government in the world has no economic interest in investing in the journey to the stars. Moreover, technology is advancing rapidly from year to year. If the spacecraft will launch tomorrow, there is a reasonable chance that the spacecraft will be fired next generation it will be fast, bypass it and reach the goal in front of her. Such a state of affairs, no one has any reason to take on a project so Shaftni- except perhaps metal thieves who want to wait Loo’igr Proxima Centauri, dismantle it and sell it to the Chinese.
But metal thieves highly motivated especially encounter challenges.
If we can build a spaceship that can fly at nearly the speed of light, the flight may be shortened from thousands of years to decades only. Although there are stars their distance from us a few light years, I put the lower limit The Ten Years‘ because the acceleration speed of light requires years. Even slowdown and braking speed of light is a long story.
Even if we assume our metal thieves ready to go on a journey of twenty and thirty years at nearly the speed of light, their problems have not been resolved. Spaceship moving at light speed is almost completely blind: You can not use radar, for example, to detect dangerous asteroids, because the radar‘s electromagnetic rays are also moving at light speed. Radar rays probe the asteroid will meet more or less the same time. Computer sophisticated autopilot will not help here: electrical signals inside the computer themselves at the most moving speed of light, and it will not be enough even blink before the collision.
Even if we could, with luck, find out very fast spaceship dangerous way- so it is impossible to change direction: inertia so fast gaining body is immense. Think of a speeding train on the tracks at a hundred and twenty miles an hour, and you begin to get an idea of the magnitude of the problem.
Slow, controlled flight more presents us with its own problems.
Humans have minimal compliance requirements. Even if Nacls the probe foreign workers from Thailand and Africa, still had to provide them with a reasonable atmosphere, food and drink off. Can not practical to store enough food spaceship hundreds of years, and therefore will need to take different recycling methods. The machines will carry out recycling will have to be reliable beyond a machine or mechanical device invented by man to date, including Japanese cars. All Stibrh oxygen molecule into every drop of water scram are precious and devoid replacement. Another problem is that cosmic rays which constitute a serious threat to the lives of passengers on board. Cosmic rays are particles moving at high speed, such as protons emitted by distant supernova. Earth’s magnetic field protects us from a significant portion of these horns, but the spacecraft will be fully exposed unless protective measures will be placed in expensive and complicated. Cosmic rays hitting our DNA molecules to form cancer cells and harmful mutations.
Mental health is at risk when it comes to the quest of decades. It is well known that people do not get along well with each other under pressure and density for a long time. In the early nineties in the United States conducted an experiment called Biosphere 2. The purpose of the experiment was to examine the possibility of creating a closed environment and completely autonomous, as this will likely be a long journey to the stars. Seven crew members entered the building sealed and held it over a few months regardless of the outside world: They grew their own food, churning the water and the air, and the like. Over time there were equipment failures and problems of recycling, but their biggest problem was actually social problem. Within a few months disagreements surfaced about how trial management, staff members were divided into two camps in conflict and people who were once good friends stopped talking to each other. In the end, each group has opened the doors of the building, outdoor air and room to experiment ended biosphere fact.
After going through the problems, let’s imagine some of the potential solutions on a long journey to the stars.
Robotic boats are one of the first ideas and obvious when it comes to long-distance space flights. In fact, we are taking this method for a long time: all spacecraft sent from Earth to other planets were not manned, and Mars robots travelers ‘Spirit’ and‘aofrtioniti.
The robots will house the ships to the stars can be turned off and dormant throughout the journey, until reaching the destination. The use of robotic ships is a practical solution but is limited. It allows us to explore the distant stars (up to the limits of artificial intelligence robot) but he does not allow us to get to the stars ourselves and that does not solve the problem of the future of humanity backup in case of global catastrophe.
Freezing is another solution that has a positive potential. In this method the probe sent populated by hundreds and thousands of travelers that everyone euthanized and frozen until the arrival destination planet where they will ultimately be returned to life.
Many scientists are currently trying to find ways to freeze animals for long periods, and they take an example of a long hibernating animals is commonplace for them, like bears. To date, scientists were able to freeze and revive small animals like dogs, rats and mice for only short periods, but studies in the field are only at their outset.
Freezing (under a different name, ‘cryonics’) is one of the favorite methods of science fiction writers solve the problem of long journeys, but they are aware of its potential disadvantages. Here, too, the credibility of the equipment is of vital importance. The movie “Space Odyssey 2001” directed by Stanley Kubrick, also based on the story of Arthur C.. Great Clark, sent to Jupiter five astronauts when three of them frozen. Computer spacecraft, Hull 9000, going crazy. He manipulates the two other astronauts, Dave Bowman and Frank Poole, get out of the spacecraft spacewalk, then murdered the three members of the old team. This scenario is a bit extreme, of course, but when it comes to sensitive electronic equipment should operate hundreds of years in a row, and no mistake.
It is interesting to note that Woody Allen has used frozen in one of his movies, but not a journey to the stars. Film ‘sleepy’ (Sleeper) enters Miles Monroe simple ulcer surgery and out of two hundred years later. The future, according to Woody Allen, code it as H’aorgzmtron amazing inventions and banana-sized canoe. On the other hand, some things never Mstnim- Beetle cars two centuries girls still motivate the first blow.
Freezing, however, is not a simple thing. As I described in the chapter on the technology of death, you can not just make the solution suitable for ice as it expands and blows up the cell walls. The techniques that are being examined today Lvicoa include unpleasantness freeze easily as emptying all the blood from the body.
Alternative freezing may be ‘ship generations. Ship generations will live a few hundred passengers, will deal with the daily operations and maintenance of research spacecraft. Over the years they have children passengers, and these children will grow up and educated in a spaceship. Knowledge required to manage the spacecraft and ultimately a settlement in the New World will be handed down by the end of the journey.
This solution has obvious downside I mentioned before and the challenge to make the technological envelope save the lives of so many people over so many years. Another difficulty and a little less obvious is to maintain the stability of the genetic code of passengers. Naturally, living in a small community within a few generations will Children born to parents relatives. Children born to couples in their DNA code similar, are at high risk ills such as mental retardation, blindness, deafness, and more. To create a large enough genetic diversity passengers community spacecraft will need quite a large number of travelers - from two hundred to five hundred people will form the genetic minimum beginning of the journey.
Instead of sending such a large quantity of settlers, which shaker and greatly complicate the project, you should maybe try a possible solution Then life extension. If it would be possible in the future to delay aging and extend lifespan of a person, we can send a very small group of astronauts and hope the vast experience they acquire during their lives will help them meet the challenges of a new occupation.
So far, scientists have not been able to discover the secret of longevity. Maybe a good thing: no one can guess which side and psychological problems arise with someone who was three centuries. All that there will be a psychological problem, there is no doubt that the loneliness and isolation of a journey to the stars only worsen it.
You may want to consider the final solution will talk about ‘passing ship. Passing ship who are sent on a journey embryonic cells are newly created and a spark of life already exists within them. Embryonic stem cells can be frozen for long periods, the process is now routinely performed, and the spacecraft may contain tens of thousands of tiny embryos still be less than a manned spacecraft really.
Realization technical challenges are obvious passing ship: artificial womb should be planned to raise the babies in due course, and the robots of the probe will have to have a good artificial intelligence enough to raise a human child, meet his needs, to maintain security and to educate him accordingly. On the other hand, the news in recent weeks have taught us that quite a few people here on Earth that parents are so bad that all of Casio pocket calculator will do a better job.
Last, One final thought. What if after passengers spacecraft will overcome all obstacles, will centuries of isolation and suffering, will deal with mechanical problems and almost impossible Medical and do the unthinkable … what if when they get the intended planet finally settle, find out … they are not alone ?